The Great Fire of 1666

Soon after midnight on Sunday 2 September 1666 a fire broke out in a baker’s shop in Pudding Lane, near London Bridge. It spread rapidly through the narrow streets where the high houses were tightly packed together. Like trees in a forest, they were tinder-dry after a long hot summer.

The Thames was so low that little water could be pumped up to fight the flames. The fire soon burnt the watersheels under the bridge which worked the pumps. By dawn it had readed the warehouses around London Bridge. They were full of inflammable materials such as tallow, sugar, oil, spirits, coal, hay and timber. A strong wind blowing from the east fanned the flames. The fire spread from the burning warehouses, first along the riverfront and then inland across the city. Sparks were blown by the wind and fell on thatched roofs and timbers, starting new fires and filling the sky with flame and smoke. In places the fire raced across the rooftops faster than a man could walk. In the streets below some people tried frantically to save themselves and their possessions while others tried in vain to fight and stop the fire. They were handicapped by carts, laden with goods, blocking the narrow streets.


For three days the wind blew and the fire raged through the densely packed streets and up the little hill which brought it to the centre of the city. Nother was spared; 87 of London’s 109 churches caught fire, the flames from their steeples marking the progress of the fire. The houses of the rich merchants and the halls of their trading companies, with their treasures in painting and woodwork, were consumed; the great oak roof of the Guildhall, centre of London’s government, burnt only eight days after orders had been given for extensive repairs to be made. Six acres of lead melted from the roof and crashed through the foor, shattering the tombs beneath, and the stones cracked causing fragments to fly in all directions.

By Wednesday, the fire had gone past the city wall and into the Liberties. It seemed about to spread to the royal palaces at Westminster when the wind dropped, the firefighters gained control and the fire ended almost as quickly as it had begun.

The Castle

The early castles were usually a type called motte-and-bailey. Castle builders made a huge, steep, earth mound surrounded by a very deep ditch. Around the top of the mound they erected a timber wall. Within the wall was a stronghold called a keep which was usually a tall, wooden, rectangular tower. Below the motte there was a large area enclosed by its own ditch and wall. This was the bailey. Usually the castle’s commander and his family lived in the keep, and his soldiers, with their horses and supplies, were housed in buildings in the bailey.


While the outside walls of a castle were often whitewashed, so that they gleamed in the sunlight. The walls inside were also whitewashed. In the great hall and the nobles’ chambers, the walls were often paneled with wood, painted white or in colours such as green and gold, and even embellished with murals. Hangings of painted cloth provided more decoration and helped cut down on drafts.

In the fourteenth century tapestries became popular wall coverings. Floors during this period, however, were generally bare wood or stone, strewn with sweet-smelling rushes and herbs. To take advantage of the natural light in order to read, do needlework or simply to view the garden, a cushioned window seat was usually placed beneath the large windows. Other lighting was provided by candles made from animal fat or sometimes (if it could be afforded) beeswax and oil lamps. Fireplaces provided both light and heat.

High, curtained beds, with feather filled mattresses piled with quilts and fur blankets kept the lords and ladies warm at night. The bed was so large that usually there was little other furniture in the chamber – just a few stools and carved wooden chests for storage. Close to the chamber would be a garderobe, a kind of indoor outhouse with a seat located over a chute that generally led to the moat. This may have been convenient but there was no toilet paper; hay was used instead.

The castle’s residents ate their meals together in the great hall, so a kitchen building was usually close by. Food was stored in or near the hall. A well and several cisterns, which caught rainwater, supplied water to the castle.

Is it full?

The following was in an email sent by a member of my writing group. Thanks, Joy. I think it tells a good story and wanted to share it. The words that follow spoke to me and I hope they speak to you too.

A professor filled a quart mason jar with golf balls and asked if the jar was full.

The professor then asked the other students if the jar was full. They agreed that it was.

So, the professor then picked up a box of pebbles and poured them into the jar. He shook the jar lightly. The pebbles rolled into the open areas between the golf balls. He then asked the students again if the jar was full. They agreed it was.

The professor next picked up a box of sand and poured it into the jar. Of course, the sand filled up everything else. He asked once more, if the jar was full. The students responded with a unanimous, “Yes.”

The professor then produced two cups of coffee from under the table, and poured the entire contents into the jar, effectively filling the empty spaces between the sand. The students laughed.

“Now,” said the professor, as the laughter subsided, “I want you to recognize that this jar represents your life. The golf balls are the important things – your family, your children, your health, your friends, your favorite passions – things that if everything else was lost, and only they remained, your life could still be full. The pebbles are the other things that matter, like your job, your house, your car. The sand is everything else – the small stuff.”

“If you put the sand into the jar first,” he continued, “there is no room for the pebbles, or the golf balls. The same goes for life. If you spend all your time and energy on the small stuff, you will never have room for the things that are important to you. Pay attention to the things that are critical to your happiness. Play with your children. Take time to get medical checkups. Take your partner out to dinner. Play another 18. There will always be time to clean the house and fix the disposal. Take care of the golf balls first, the things that really matter. Set your priorities. The rest is just sand.”

One of the students raised her hand and inquired what the coffee represented. The professor smiled. “I’m glad you asked. It just goes to show you that no matter how full your life may seem, there’s always room for a couple of cups of coffee with a friend.”

5 Act Plan

I’m not sure where the information originally came from but thanks go to Kristine from the AFWD group for sharing.

1) Exposition or Introduction

Establishes tone, setting, some of main characters, previous events to understand play, and main conflict.

2) Rising Action

A series of complications for the protagonist that come out of the main conflict.

3) Crisis or Turning Point

The Technical Climax
The moment of choice for the protagonist

4) Falling Action

Presents the incidents resulting from the protagonist’s decision at the turning point.

5) Resolution or Denouement

The conclusion
The unraveling of the plot
Includes the catastrophe of the hero’s and others’ deaths
Includes the dramatic climax of the play

Moving on to Step 4

I decided to add the link to the Snowflake Process to the navigation bar to your right. It’s worth trying.

I have spent longer than I planned on Step 3 and I’m still not entirely happy with the profiles I have but I will go back and modify them later. I think I need to work out more of the plot first and Step 4 (of the Snowflake Process) will help me do just that.

I really like the process so far. It’s common sense and find plot holes before you start writing. I’ve discovered more than I bargained for and my characters have been given new personalities because the characters I had couldn’t handle the situations I intend to put them in. These revised characters will learn and grow, and I feel excited for them.

Anyway, Step 4 requires that I expand the one paragraph storyline into a one page synopsis. That will be killing two birds with one stone – I like that!

Passage by Connie Willis

I’ve been reading a lot of young adult novels lately and think it’s time I read something for adults. Passage has been sitting on my book shelf for some time and the blurb sounds interesting. It’s not fantasy but that will probably make a pleasant change.

The novel is over 700 pages long and as I’m a slow reader, it will be a while before I report finishing this story. I haven’t started it yet but would like to make a start tonight… hopefully.

Doomsday Book by the same author was excellent. I felt as if I experienced life in medieval times that was suffering the plague. It was a real look at a time that would have been awful to live through yet we tend to romanticise.

Preparing a Mummy

mummyWarning: This is not suitable for children or the faint hearted.

The Egyptians believed that there was a life after death. According to them, when someone died the soul went on living and needed its body to return to. So the body was carefully preserved in a process called mummification. High-ranking officials, priests and other nobles who had served the pharaoh and his queen had fairly elaborate burials. The pharaohs, who were believed to become gods when they died, had the most magnificent burials of all.

The dead person’s body was taken to the embalmers, skilled men who treated it so that it would not decay. First they took out the brains and internal organs like the heart, placing them in special canopic jars. The lids of these jars were fashioned after the four sons of Horus, who were each entrusted with protecting a particular organ:

jarsQebehsenuef, the falcon head — intestines
Duamutef, the jackal head — stomach
Hapy, the baboon head — lungs
Imsety, the human head — liver

    Then the body was washed and cleaned, filled with sweet smelling spices and covered with natron, a kind of soda. After 70 days the body would be quite dry and preserved. Then it was cleaned again and rubbed with unguents to aid in preserving the mummy’s skin. If the dead person had been rich, the body was also decorated with fine jewellery.

    TombviewNext the mummy was carefully wrapped in long linen bandages. Fingers and toes were covered with protective gold caps and individually wrapped with long, narrow strips of linen. Arms and legs were also wrapped, then the entire body was wrapped to a depth of about twenty layers. Magic objects called amulets were put between the layers of bandage to give extra protection in the next life.

    Finally, the mummy was put in a coffin shaped like a human figure. These coffins were often richly decorated with paintings of the gods and accounts of the dead person’s life. Only then was a person ready for the journey across the Nile and the start of the next life.

    Egyptian Chronology

    PRE-DYNASTIC PERIOD: c.5000-3100 BC
    This period predates the unification of the northern and southern parts of Egypt. Settlements were established beside the Nile River. By 3500 BC, Hierakonpolis in Upper Egypt was the largest Egyptian settlement with the busy town spread out along the Nile for over three kilometres. Hieroglyphs made their first appearance toward the end of this period, around 3250 BC by the latest estimates.

    Toward the end of this time, around 3250 to 3100 BC, a period sometimes referred to by Egyptologists as Dynasty 0, there were kings in Upper (Southern) Egypt with Narmer being of particular prominence. The unification of Upper and Lower Egypt is often attributed to a king called Menes or Narmer, who may be the same person. The so-called Narmer Palette shows Narmer in battle and wearing the crown of Upper Egypt on one side and the crown of Lower Egypt on the reverse side.

    EARLY DYNASTIC PERIOD: 3100-2686 BC; Dynasties 1/II
    It may be that Narmer handed on a newly unified country to his son, Hor-Aha, who is considered to be the first king of the first Dynasty. He took a second royal name, Men, meaning “established” which may be another explanation for the name Menes referred to by Manetho as the first king of Upper and Lower Egypt. Hor-Aha also established Memphis, in Lower Egypt, as the country’s capital – it became one of the ancient world’s greatest cities for thousands of years.

    OLD KINGDOM: 2686-2181BC; Dynasties III-VI
    egyptA Golden Age for Egypt. The king was considered the incarnation of the god Horus and from the 5th Dynasty, the son of Re, the sun god. The first major stone building in the world, the famous Step Pyramid, was constructed at Saqqara for Djoser, one of the kings of the 3rd Dynasty. During the 4th Dynasty, a number of large pyramids were built, including Khufu’s (Cheops) Great Pyramid at Giza – one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, and the only one still standing. The priesthood of the god Re became powerful at Heliopolis and some of the kings of the 5th Dynasty built solar temples adjacent to their relatively small pyramids at Abusir near Saqqara. For the first time, a king (Unas – the last ruler of the 5th Dynasty) had his pyramid’s burial chamber inscribed with spells for the afterlife. These are the famous Pyramid Texts. A bodyguard may have murdered Teti, the first king of the 6th Dynasty. The dynasty ended with the exceptionally long reign of Pepi II, perhaps 94 years, which saw centralised power dwindle away.

    FIRST INTERMEDIATE PERIOD: 2181-2040 BC; Dynasties VII-XThis period saw a breakdown of central government. Local governors who would not answer to any king governed provinces. Major building projects are not found from this time, indicating the weakness of the kings. Dozens of kings are listed for the period, meaning that perhaps they had either very short or overlapping reigns. Famine affected the country as a result of a number of poor annual inundations of the Nile. Some scenes on tomb walls depict people suffering from malnutrition. Memphis may have remained the principal administrative centre for much of the First Intermediate Period, although by the 9th Dynasty the town of Herakleopolis Magna was producing rulers. They came into conflict with a family line from Thebes in the early part of the 11th Dynasty, which Egyptologists often include in this period.

    MIDDLE KINGDOM: 2040-1782 BC; Dynasties XI/XII
    Reunification of Egypt occurred in the 11th Dynasty under the rule of Mentuhotep I, fourth king of that dynasty, whose family was based in Thebes (modern Luxor). After a series of battles with northern rulers, Mentuhotep I controlled the whole of Egypt by the 39th year of his reign. The administrative centre of the country became a place called Itj-tawy which is believed to have been located near the Faiyum Oasis.

    The 12th Dynasty began, it seems, when king Mentuhotep III was overthrown by Amenemhet I (probably the former’s vizier) who ruled for about 29 years. It was under him that the Theban god Amun began his rise to prominence. Amenemhet began to share his rule with his son Senusret I for the last 10 years of his reign until the former’s murder. Later in the Dynasty, Senusret III pushed beyond Egypt’s boundaries, including campaigns into Nubia to the south. The move was to protect the southern border and safeguard access to trade routes and Nubia’s abundant gold resources. The Middle Kingdom is well known for being the highpoint in Egyptian literature and it also saw a revival in the quality of art.

    A period about which not a lot is known and rulers did not last very long. Invaders (known as the Hyksos) came from Asia and moved into the Delta. They introduced the Egyptians to the horse-drawn chariot, the composite bow and bronze weapons. This period of instability lasted two centuries and was brought to an end by a Theban family, one of whom (Ahmose) finally expelled the Hyksos.

    NEW KINGDOM: 1570-1070 BC Dynasties XVIII-XX
    The New Kingdom’s first king was Ahmose who reunified Upper and Lower Egypt. This was another Golden Age for Egypt as it expanded its empire. Memphis was the administrative capital again. The term pharaoh began being applied to the king. Queen Hatshepsut became pharaoh by default while acting as regent for a young Tuthmosis III. He eventually came to power and became the “Napoleon” of ancient Egypt. The empire spread far to the south into ancient Nubia (south of modern Aswan and into northern Sudan), while in the north the territory under control was expanded well into the Near East.

    It was in the New Kingdom that most of the pharaohs’ tombs were located in the Valley of the Kings and their mortuary temples were separately located. Egypt became incredibly wealthy through trade and foreign conquests. The country’s religious orders also benefited – particularly that of the state god Amun-Re with its powerful clergy and vast temples and estates. The existing religious orders were deposed for a while during the 14th century BC when the heretic king Akhenaten established a new religious order – that of the sun god Aten. The old temples were abandoned and a new capital, Akhetaten, was established to the north. Attention to international affairs waned.

    Soon after the death of Akhenaten, his probable son – Tutankhaten – became pharaoh at about the age of nine. His was a short reign, but the old religious orders rose again and Akhenaten’s city was destroyed. Tutankhaten’s name was changed to Tutankhamun, but his reign was only about nine years. He was followed as pharaoh, by the elderly Ay. Several years later, a general by the name of Horemheb came to power and started a campaign to eliminate evidence of his immediate predecessors for whom he had served.

    His successor was Ramesses I who was the first in a long line of Ramesside kings in the 19th and 20th Dynasties. (Note that some Egyptologists list Horemheb as the first king of the 19th Dynasty.) Ramesses I’s grandson, Ramesses II, is often referred to as Ramesses the Great. He became one of Egypt’s greatest builders and signed the first recorded peace treaty in history. By the 20th Dynasty the power of the pharaohs had waned and there were battles with invaders called the Sea Peoples under Ramesses III, the last significant pharaoh of the New Kingdom. Egypt would never rule again with the same power. Ramesses XI was the last of the rulers of the New Kingdom. The Theban priesthood virtually controlled Upper Egypt by the end of the New Kingdom, while the pharaoh had ruled from the Delta.

    egypt tombAfter the end of the New Kingdom, Egypt was virtually bankrupt. Despite this some of the pharaohs of the 21st Dynasty were buried in the Delta with considerable wealth which came to light in 1939-40 – the discovery did not receive much publicity because of World War II. Smendes, the first king of the 21st Dynasty, ruled from Tanis in the Delta, while the high priest of the god Amun, Pinudjem, ruled from Thebes in the south despite intermarrying between the two lines to smooth relations. By the 22nd Dynasty, pharaohs of Libyan descent came to power in the Delta while the Theban rulers weakened and some unity was re-established for a short time.

    By the 8th century BC, the influence of Nubia on Egypt’s southern border was being felt. Nubia had been strongly influenced by the cult of Amun which had been introduced to them during the New Kingdom. Now the Nubians saw an opportunity to re-establish the old order of Amun in Thebes, which they did by becoming rulers of Egypt in the 25th Dynasty. In the early 7th century BC, the country was ruled by Taharqa who began to have problems with the Assyrians and their expansionist policies. Finally, in 671 BC, the Assyrians, under Esarhaddon, pushed into Egypt and captured the capital Memphis and most of the royal family. Taharqa fled south to Thebes.

    Two years later Taharqa regained control, but Esarhaddon’s son Ashurbanipal attacked and recaptured Memphis. Taharqa’s successor, Tanutamun, managed to regain control of the country, but eventually Ashurbanipal returned with a vengeance and moved to Thebes where the temples were raided of their treasures. Nubia would never again rule Egypt. Psamtik (Psammetichus) was recognised by the Assyrians as the king of Egypt from 664 BC and the country began to enjoy peace for about the next 140 years. The old crafts reached a very high standard again and many of the styles of the Old Kingdom were copied. Assyria began to have internal problems and by 653 BC, Psamtik asserted independence for Egypt which was once again becoming a power in the region, although never like it once was.

    Peace for Egypt ended when it was invaded by the Persian king Cambyses II in 525 BC. When the Greeks defeated the Persians at Marathon in 490 BC, the Egyptians took advantage of the distraction and in 486 BC they revolted. However, Egypt repeatedly had to deal with Persian invasions over nearly two centuries. The last Persian invasion took place in 343 BC during the reign of the Nectanebo II, the last Egyptian pharaoh. Egypt would not see another Egyptian as ruler until AD 1952.

    In 332 BC, the Macedonian empire expanded into Egypt with the arrival of Alexander the Great. The Egyptians welcomed Alexander after all the troubles of the Persian occupations. He ordered the restoration of temples sacked by the Persians in 343 BC. On the western side of the Delta, construction began on the city of Alexandria. When Alexander died suddenly in Babylon in 323 BC, control of Egypt fell into the hands of his half-brother Philip Arrhidaeus and posthumous son Alexander IV. By 305 BC, the Macedonian general Ptolemy I became the first in a long line of Ptolemaic rulers.

    During the 3rd century BC, Alexandria began to flourish as the jewel of the Ancient World. The city became famous for its Great Library and the lighthouse, which was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. Ptolemaic rule was stable and a number of major temples were constructed in Upper Egypt. The Ptolemaic line lasted until the reign of Cleopatra VII, the daughter of Ptolemy XII. Cleopatra later became the mistress of Julius Caesar from Rome and bore him a child. After Caesar’s assassination, Cleopatra sided with Mark Antony against Caesar’s heir, Octavian. Following the sea battle of Actium in 31 BC where Cleopatra’s ships fled home followed by Antony, Octavian went to Alexandria but was denied the capture of the two when both suicided in 30 BC.

    ROMAN PERIOD: 30 BC-c.AD 450Egypt came under Roman influence and was ruled by a prefect for Octavian, who became Augustus, the first Roman Emperor in 27 BC. The country was considered a “breadbasket” for centuries under successive emperors.

    In AD 384, Theodosius ordered the closing of Egypt’s pagan temples and adherence to Christianity (although the temple dedicated to the goddess Isis at Philae in the country’s far south continued to function until AD 536). In AD 395, the Roman Empire split into west and east with Egypt becoming part of the Byzantine Empire. This lasted until the arrival of Islam in AD 641.