The Teenage Queen
From an early age, Cleopatra’s family were at war – not only with the people it ruled but with each other. The people suffered under the cruelty of Cleopatra’s father, Ptolemy XII, due to his alliance with Rome, the citizens rioted and chased Ptolemy out of Egypt. Berenice, Cleopatra’s older sister became queen at this time but after only three years, Ptolemy returned from Rome taking back his throne and ordered Berenice’s execution. It is rumoured that during her three years as queen, Berenice had her sister, Cleopatra Tryphaena murdered.
Most of the royal family did not want to marry outside the family, because they thought this might weaken its power, so when her father died in 51BC Cleopatra, aged eighteen, married her twelve year old brother, Ptolemy XIII, and became queen. Fearing her enemies would try to kill her, she made friends with powerful courtiers. She prepared herself for government by learning many launguages including Egyptian (the rest of the family only spoke Greek). She also used religion to support her claim to the throne. Cleopatra called herself the Sun-God’s daughter, which was an ancient royal title.
During the first few years of her reign, Cleopatra managed to keep hold of the power. Her brother – now husband – was considered too young to reign and Cleopatra ruled alone. As Ptolemy XIII approached his sixteenth birthday, he gradually demanded his share of the power. Cleopatra’s most powerful enemy was Pothinus, her brother’s chief advisor who didn’t like the way Cleopatra made decisions without consulting him.
In 48BC, Cleopatra discovered that Ptolemy and Pothinus were plotting to send soldiers to kidnap her, and guessed that they planned to kill her. She knew that she must leave Egypt and set sail for Syria. When she left, she took her only surviving sister, Arsinoe, into exile with her. This was partly to protect her from Ptolemy and Pothinus, but more importantly to stop Arsinoe trying to seize power while Cleopatra was gone because she hoped to recruit an army to help her win back her throne from her brother.
A short time later, Caesar arrived in Egypt to collect a huge sum of money that he claimed Cleopatra’s father had owed him. He ordered Cleopatra and Ptolemy to meet with him to discuss a peace treaty. Not trusting her brother, Cleopatra knew that her life would be in real danger if she had to come face to face with any of her brother’s advisors. She knew her only option was to get Caesar’s protection.
It is said that Cleopatra sent Caesar a beautiful carpet as a gift. Caesar was astonished when the carpet was unrolled to reveal Cleopatra herself. Using her charm and intelligence she quickly gained his support.
When Pothinus, Ptolemy’s chief advisor, found out that Cleopatra had won Caesar’s support, he plotted against him. Caesar’s barbar overheard Pothinus’s plans and Pothinus was executed. Meanwhile Arsinoe, Cleopatra’s younger sister, escaped from the city to join forces with General Achillas and the Egyptian army against Caesar. When Ptolemy XIII heard that Cleopatra was with Caesar, he ran out of the palace and threw down his crown in a terrible rage. The palace was now under siege by the Egyptian army. In the hope of appeasing them, Caesar allowed Ptolemy to leave the city and join his sister, Arsinoe, and General Archillas. Days after the war in Alexandria ended, Ptolemy’s body was found in the harbour.
A Powerful Protector
Cleopatra finally felt secure. Her enemy Ptolemy XIII and his advisors were dead, and Caesar promised to protect her. She promptly married her surviving brother, 11 year old Ptolemy XIV and with Caesar at her side, she sailed down the Nile, to meet her subjects. It was believed that Cleopatra was pregnant with Caesar’s child and when he returned to Rome, he left 15,000 men to guard her.
Claiming she was negotiating a peace treaty between Egypt and Rome, Cleopatra hurried to join Caesar in Rome. Cleopatra took her son, Caesarion and her teenage brother, Ptolemy XIV with her, fearing her brother or his advisors would try to seize power in Egypt while she was away.
Cleopatra stayed in one of Caesar’s splendid villas in Rome. She held court there, inviting leading Romans to visit her and offering them rich gifts. She hoped to win their friendship and support. Caesar paid for a beautiful statue of Cleopatra to be put on disply in a temple – it showed her as a mother holding Caesarion in her arms. Many Romans were shocked by the relationship between Caesar and Cleopatra. They were afraid that Caesar would name Caesarion as his heir and would become ruler of Rome.
As a reward for his victories, the Senate made Caesar dictator (sole ruler) for the next ten years in 46BC. Two years later, he was made dictator for life. Some Romans feared that Caesar was becoming too powerful, and that he wanted to be king so about sixty conspirators decided he must be killed.
Julius Caesar was stabbed to death after a Senate meeting in 44BC.
Antony and Cleopatra
After Caesar’s murder, Cleopatra hurried back to Egypt. Once again her kingdom was in danger as many hostile countries saw Egypt as a rich prize, and hoped to conquer it. Fearing Caesar’s enemies would murder her son, Cleopatra kept Caesarion close by her side. At this time, Ptolemy XIV mysteriously disappeared, and people believed that Cleopatra had poisoned her brother, so that she could rule Egypt with her young son. Life in Egypt was not easy as many people saw Cleopatra as a traitor because of her friendhsip with Caesar and her long visit to Rome.
Caesar’s death led to three years of civil war in Rome. Finally, in 42BC the Roman lands were divided among the three powerful men leading the rival armies – Octavian (Caesar’s nephew), Marcus Antonius (Antony), and Marcus Lepidus. Antony took control of the whole eastern Mediterranean region, which included Egypt.
Antony needed Cleopatra’s support as he feared that she might side with his enemies. He also needed Egypt’s gold to pay his armies to keep control of his share of the empire, and Egypt’s grain to feed his men. Antony wrote to Cleopatra and when she did not reply, he summoned her to meet him.
Cleopatra was no fool, she knew Antony needed her gold and she was in no hurry to respond to him. Instead, she deliberately took her time. She planned to ask for his protection and she wanted his help to kill her enemies – including her sister, Arsinoe.
After Cleopatra’s arrival in Tarsus, Antony invited her to dine with him. Cleopatra refused. Instead, she insisted that he go to her royal barge. She took great care with her preparations – she wanted Antony to be delighted and impressed by her. She arranged for her barge to be decoreated with thousands of tiny oil lamps in glittering, flickering patterns of light.
They met several times during Cleopatra’s vist to Tarsus, to discuss the terms of their alliance. Cleopatra’s plan worked and she won Antony’s support. Antony hurried to Egypt and spent the winter of 41BC at Cleopatra side. She watched him exercise with his troops, she flattered him, listened to his battle stories, and entertained him at fabulous feasts. Then she became pregnant – with twins. Antony was their father yet in 40BC, he had to return to Rome because his wife, Fulvia, was leading a rebellion against Octavian; he missed the twin’s birth. Late in 40BC, Antony’s wife Fulvia died. Antony made a peace treaty with Octavian, and as a sign of friendship he married Octavian’s sister, Octavia.
It was to be four years before Antony returned to Egypt and to Cleopatra. She needed a strong ally to help keep Egypt independent, so she welcomed him back. In 35BC, they had a third child, a son whom they named Ptolemy Philadelphus. Early in 34BC, Antony invaded Armenia and returned to Alexandria in triumph, In a magnificent ceremony Cleopatra was crowned “Queen of Kings”, and all her children were given special royal titles.
With Antony to help her, Cleopatra hoped to reclaim many of the lands once owned by Ptolemies, including Syria, Lebanon and Phoenicia. When Octavian heard about Antony and Cleopatra’s ambitious plans, he made powerfut speeches in the Roman senate, declaring Antony as a traitor. War was declared against Cleopatra – and all Egypt.
Naturally, Antony joined Cleopatra in the war against Rome but he did not want to lose control of his lands in the east, which included Greece. They sailed to Greece with a huge fleet of warships. In spring 31BC, the Roman forces arrived and for several months Octavian’s fleet patrolled the Greek coast, fighting Antony’s soldiers, capturing his forts and sinking his ships. Trapped in the Gulf of Ambracia, Antony’s soldiers became very ill with malaria. Food and water supplies ran out and many of them deserted. In a last effort, Antony and Cleopatra decided to smash through the Roman blockade.
Once out in the open sea, Cleopatra realised she could escape. She took her chance, and sailed away. She hoped to save her ships and her treasure so that she could fight another day. Antony managed to sail after Cleopatra, but the rest of his warships could not get past the Romans. His ships were destroyed, many of his soldiers were killed and the rest surrendered to Octavian.
Antony went into hiding on Pharos, an island in Alexandria harbour, and refused to see anyone after the defeat and dishonour of the Battle of Actium. Cleopatra planned to continue to rule Egypt. Almost one year later, they faced Octavian for the final time when he invaded Egypt.
Forced to flee Octavian’s army when most of his soldiers refused to fight, Antony was disgraced and ashamed, and blamed Cleopatra. Afraid of his anger, Cleopatra had locked herself in her mausoleum and sent a message saying she was dead. In despair, Antony stabbed himself. When she heard the news, Cleopatra sent her servants to carry Antony to her, and he died in her arms.
Octavian allowed Cleopatra to arrange Antony’s funeral and to take part in the ceremony. He refused, however, to allow her children to rule Egypt on behalf of Rome. Cleopatra could not bear to live while forenigners ruled her land. The most popular story about Cleopatra’s death says that she was bitten by a small poisonous snake, called an asp yet her mausoleum has not been found, so historians do not know exactly how she died.